Leptospirosis is a neglected emerging zoonosis occurring both in urban environments and rural regions
worldwide. During occupational and recreational activities, individuals who directly or indirectly contact
the urine of infected animals are at a high risk of infection. Southeast Asia is reported to have the highest
incidence of leptospirosis in the world.
The disease is endemic in Malaysia and has consistently caused
outbreaks among humans with severe outcomes. Early diagnosis is vital for commence treatment thereby
minimizing the harmful effects of the disease. It also allows the implementation of measures to control
the spread to humans and the environment. In this article, an attempt was made to review the current
diagnostic methods including challenges faced by healthcare service providers during the diagnosis of
acute cases, as well as the emerging technologies used for early and accurate diagnosis. The review also
highlighted innovative ideas that can be integrated into developing practical solutions, including the
crucial roles of the patients, reservoir hosts, and the environments that harbor the bacteria. Read here.